II. 1 Tapah-svādhyāya-īshvarapranidhānāni kriyā-yogah
Yoga in the form of action (kriya yoga) has three parts: 1) training and purifying
the senses (tapas), 2) self-study in the context of teachings (svadhyaya), and 3)
devotion and letting go into the creative source from which we emerged (ishvara
II. 2 Samādhi-bhāvana-arthah klésha-tanū-karana-arthash cha
That Yoga of action (kriya yoga) is practiced to bring about samadhi and to
minimize the colored thought patterns (kleshas).
II.3 Avidyā-asmitā-rāaga-dvésha-abhinivéshāh kléshāh
There are five kinds of coloring (kleshas): 1) forgetting, or ignorance about the
true nature of things (avidya), 2) I-ness, individuality, or egoism (asmita), 3)
attachment or addiction to mental impressions or objects (raga), 4) aversion to
thought patterns or objects (dvesha), and 5) love of these as being life itself, as well
as fear of their loss as being death.
II.4 Avidyā kshétram uttareshām prasupta-tanu-vichinna-udārānām
The root forgetting or ignorance of the nature of things (avidya) is the breeding
ground for the other of the five colorings (kleshas), and each of these is in one of four
states: 1) dormant or inactive, 2) attenuated or weakened, 3) interrupted or
separated from temporarily, or 4) active and producing thoughts or actions to varying
II.5 Anitya-ashuchi-dukha-anātmasu nitya-shuchi-sukha-ātma khyātir avidyā
Ignorance (avidya) is of four types: 1) regarding that which is transient as eternal,
2) mistaking the impure for pure, 3) thinking that which brings misery to bring
happiness, and 4) taking that which is not-self to be self.
II.6 Drig-darshana-shaktyor éka-ātmatā iva asmitā
The coloring (klesha) of I-ness or egoism (asmita), which arises from the
ignorance, occurs due to the mistake of taking the intellect (buddhi, which knows,
decides, judges, and discriminates) to itself be pure consciousness (purusha/drig).
II.7 Sukha-anushayī rāgah
Attachment (raga) is a separate modification of mind, which follows the rising of
the memory of pleasure, where the three modifications of attachment, pleasure, and
the memory of the object are then associated with one another.
II.8 Dukhā-anushayī dvéshah
Aversion (dvesha) is a modification that results from misery associated with some
memory, whereby the three modifications of aversion, pain, and the memory of the
object or experience are then associated with one another.
II.9 Svarasa-vāhī vidusho api tathā rūdho abhi-nivéshah
Even for those people who are learned, there is an ever-flowing, firmly established
love for continuation and a fear of cessation, or death, of these various colored
modifications (kleshas).
II.10 Té pratiprasava-héyāh sūkshmāh
When the five types of colorings (kleshas) are in their subtle, merely potential
form, they are then destroyed by their disappearance or cessation into and of the field
of mind itself.
II.11 Dhyāna-héyāas tad- vrittayah
When the modifications still have some potency of coloring (klishta), they are
brought to the state of mere potential by meditation (dhyana).
II.12 Klésha-mūlah karma-āshayo drishta-adrishta-janma-védanīyah
Latent impressions that are colored (karmashaya) result from other actions
(karmas) that were brought about by colorings (kleshas), and become active and
experienced in a current life or a future life.
II.13 Sati-mūlé tad-vipāko jāty-āyur-bhogāh
As long as those colorings (kleshas) remains at the root, three consequences are
produced: 1) birth, 2) span of life, and 3) experiences in that life.
II.14 Té hlāda-paritāpa-phalāh punya-apunya-hétu-tvāt
Because of having the nature of merits or demerits (virtue or vice), these three
(birth, span of life, and experiences) may be experienced as either pleasure or pain.
II.15 Parināma-tāpa-samskāra-duhkhair guna-vritti-virodhāch cha duhkham éva sarvam vivékinah
A wise, discriminating person sees all worldly experiences as painful, because of
reasoning that all these experiences lead to more consequences, anxiety, and deep
habits (samskaras), as well as acting in opposition to the natural qualities.
II.16 Héyam duhkham an-āgatam
Because the worldly experiences are seen as painful, it is the pain, which is yet
to come that is to be avoided and discarded.
II.17 Drashtri-drishayoh samyogo héya-hétuh
The uniting of the seer (the subject, or experiencer) with the seen (the object, or
that which is experienced) is the cause or connection to be avoided.
II.18 Prakāasha-kriyā-sthiti-shīlam bhūta-indriya-ātmakam bhoga-aparvarga-artham dri-shyam
The objects (or knowables) are by their nature of: 1) illumination or sentience, 2)
activity or mutability, or 3) inertia or stasis; they consist of the elements and the
powers of the senses, and exist for the purpose of experiencing the world and for
liberation or enlightenment.
II.19 Vishésha-avishésha-lingamātra-alingāni guna-parvāni
There are four states of the elements (gunas), and these are: 1) diversified or
specialized, (vishesha), 2) undiversified or unspecialized (avishesha), 3) indicator-only or
marked only (linga-matra), and 4) without indicator or without mark
II.20 Drashtā drishi-mātrah shuddho ’pi pra-tyaya-anupashyah
The Seer is but the force of seeing itself, appearing to see or experience that
which is presented as a cognitive principle.
II.21 Ted-artha éva drishyasya āsmā
The essence or nature of the knowable objects exists only to serve as the
objective field for pure consciousness.
II.22 Krita-artham prati nashtam apy a-nash-tam tad anya-sādhārana-tvāt
Although knowable objects cease to exist in relation to one who has experienced
their fundamental, formless true nature, the appearance of the knowable objects is
not destroyed, for their existence continues to be shared by others who are still
observing them in their grosser forms.
II.23 Sva-svāmi-shaktyoh svarūpa-upalabdhi-hétuh sam-yogah
Having an alliance, or relationship between objects and the Self is the necessary
means by which there can subsequently be the realization of the true nature of those
objects by that very Self.
II.24 Tasya hétur avidyā
Avidya or ignorance (2.3-2.5), the condition of ignoring, is the underlying cause
that allows this alliance to appear to exist.
II.25 Tad-abhāvāt samyoga-abhāvo hānam tad drishéh kaīvalyam
By causing a lack of avidya, or ignorance there is then an absence of the alliance,
and this leads to a freedom known as a state of liberation or enlightenment for the
II.26 Vivéka-khyātir a-viplavā hāna-upāyah
Clear, distinct, unimpaired discriminative knowledge is the means of liberation
from this alliance.
II. 27 Tasya sapta-dhā prānta-bhūmi prajnā
Seven kinds of ultimate insight come to one who has attained this degree of
II.28 Yoga-anga-anushthānād ashuddhi-kshayé jnâna-dīptir ā vivéka-khyāteh Through the practice of the different limbs, or steps to Yoga, whereby impurities
are eliminated, there arises an illumination that culminates in discriminative wisdom,
or enlightenment.
II.29 Yama-niyama-āsana-prānāyāma-pratyāra-dhārana-dhyāna-samādhayo asthāv angā-ni
The eight limbs, or steps of Yoga are:
* The codes of self-regulation or restraint (yamas)
* Observances or practices of self-training (niyamas)
* Postures (asana)
* Expansion of breath and prana (pranayama)
* Withdrawal of the senses (pratyahara)
* Concentration (dharana)
* Meditation (dhyana)
* Perfected concentration (samadhi).
II.30 Ahimsā-satya-astéya-brahmacharya-apa-rigrahā yamāh
Non-injury or non-harming (ahimsa), truthfulness (satya), abstention from
stealing (asteya), walking in awareness of the highest reality (brahmacharya), and
non-possessiveness or non-grasping with the senses (aparigraha) are the five yamas,
or codes of self-regulation or restraint, and are the first of the eight steps of Yoga.
II.31 Jāti-désha-kāla-samaya-anavacchinnāh sārva-bhaumā mahā-vratam
These codes of self-regulation or restraint become a great vow when they
become universal and are not restricted by any consideration of the nature of the kind
of living being to whom one is related, nor in any place, time or situation.
II.32 Shaucha-samtosha-tapah-svādhyāya-їsh-varapranidhānāni
Cleanliness and purity of body and mind (shaucha), an attitude of contentment
(santosha), ascesis or training of the senses (tapas), self-study and reflection on
sacred words (svadhyaya), and an attitude of letting go into one's source
(ishvarapranidhana) are the observances or practices of self-training (niyamas), and
are the second rung on the ladder of Yoga.
II.33 Vitarka-bādhané pratipaksha-bhāvanam
When these codes of self-regulation or restraint (yamas) and observances or
practices of self-training (niyamas) are inhibited from being practiced due to perverse,
unwholesome, troublesome, or deviant thoughts, principles in the opposite direction,
or contrary thought should be cultivated.
II.34 Vitarkā himsā-ādayah krita-kārita-anumo-ditā lobha-krodha-moha-pūrvakā mridu-madhya-adhimātrā dukha-ajnāna-ananta-phalā iti pratipaksha-bhāvanam
Actions arising out of such negative thoughts are performed directly by oneself,
caused to be done through others, or approved of when done by others. All of these
may be preceded by, or performed through anger, greed or delusion, and can be mild,
moderate or intense in nature. To remind oneself that these negative thoughts and
actions are the causes of unending misery and ignorance is the contrary thought, or
principle in the opposite direction that was recommended in the previous sutra.
II.35 Ahimsā-pratishthāyam tat-samnidhan vaīra-tyāgah
As a Yogi becomes firmly grounded in non-injury (ahimsa), other people who
come near will naturally lose any feelings of hostility.
II.36 Satya-pratishthāyām kriyā-phala-āshraya-tvam
As truthfulness (satya) is achieved, the fruits of actions naturally result according
to the will of the Yogi.
II.37 Astéya-pratishthāyām srava-ratna-upa-sthānam
When non-stealing (asteya) is established, all jewels, or treasures present
themselves, or are available to the Yogi.
II.38 Brahmacharya-pratishthāyām vīra-lābhah
When walking in the awareness of the highest reality (brahmacharya) is firmly
established, then a great strength, capacity, or vitality (virya) is acquired.
II.39 Aparigraha-sthaīryé janma kathamtā-sambodhah
When one is committed in non-possessiveness or non-grasping with the senses
(aparigraha), there arises knowledge of the why and wherefore of past and future
II.40 Shauchāt svānga-jugupsā parair a-samsar-gah
Through cleanliness and purity of body and mind (shaucha), one develops an
attitude of distancing, or disinterest towards one's own body, and becomes disinclined
towards contacting the bodies of others.
II.41 Sattva-shuddhi-saumanasya ékāgrya-in-driya-jaya-ātmadarshana-yogyatāni cha
Also through cleanliness and purity of body and mind (shaucha) comes a
purification of the subtle mental essence (sattva), a pleasantness, goodness and
gladness of feeling, concentration of mind, controlling the senses and the ability to be related to the deep awareness.
II.42 Samtoshād an-uttamah sukha-lābhah
From an attitude of contentment (santosha), unexcelled happiness, mental
comfort, joy, and satisfaction is obtained.
II.43 Kāya-indriya-siddhir ashuddhi-kshayāt tapasah
Through ascesis or training of the senses (tapas), there comes a destruction of
mental impurities, and an ensuing mastery or perfection over the body and the mental
organs of senses and actions (indriyas).
II.44 Svādhyāyād isthadévatā-samprayogah
From self-study and reflection on sacred words (svadhyaya), one attains contact,
communion, or concert with that underlying natural reality.
II.45 Samādhi-siddhir īshvara-pranidhānāt
From an attitude of letting go into one's source (ishvarapranidhana), the state of
perfected concentration (samadhi) is attained.
II.46 Sthirasukham āsana
The posture (asana) for Yoga meditation should be steady, stable, and
motionless, as well as comfortable, and this is the third of the eight limbs of Yoga.
II.47 Prayatna-shaїtilya-ananta-samāpatti-bhyām The means of perfecting the posture is that of relaxing or loosening of effort, and
allowing attention to merge with endlessness, or the infinite.
II.48 Tato dvanda-an-abhighâtah
From the attainment of that perfected posture, there arises an unassailable,
unimpeded freedom from suffering due to the pairs of opposites (such as heat and
cold, good and bad, or pain and pleasure).
II.49 Tasmin sati shvāsa-prashvāsayor gati-vic-chédah prānāyāmah
Once that perfected posture has been achieved, the slowing or braking of the
force behind, and of unregulated movement of inhalation and exhalation is called
breath control and expansion of prana (pranayama), which leads to the absence of the
awareness of both, and is the fourth of the eight limbs.
II.50 Bāhya-ābhyantara-stambla-vrittir désha-kāla-samkhyābhih pari-drishto dїrgha-sūkshmah
That pranayama has three aspects of external or outward flow (exhalation),
internal or inward flow (inhalation), and the third, which is the absence of both during
the transition between them, and is known as fixedness, retention, or suspension.
These are regulated by place, time, and number, with breath becoming slow and
II.51 Bāhya-ābhyantara-vishaya-ākshépī caturhah
The fourth pranayama is that continuous prana which surpasses, is beyond, or
behind those others that operate in the exterior and interior realms or fields.
II.52 Tatah kshīyaté prakāsha-āvaranam
Through that pranayama the veil of karmasheya (2.12) that covers the inner
illumination or light is thinned, diminishes and vanishes.
II.53 Dhāranāsu cha yogyatā manasah
Through these practices and processes of pranayama, which is the fourth of the
eight steps, the mind acquires or develops the fitness, qualification, or capability for
true concentration (dharana), which is itself the sixth of the steps.
II.54 Svavishaya-asamprayogé chitta-svarūpa-anukāra iva indryānām pratyāhārah
When the mental organs of senses and actions (indriyas) cease to be engaged
with the corresponding objects in their mental realm, and assimilate or turn back into
the mind-field from which they arose, this is called pratyahara, and is the fifth step.
II.55 Tatah paramā vashyatā indriyānām
Through that turning inward of the organs of senses and actions (indriyas) also
comes a supreme ability, controllability, or mastery over those senses inclining to go
outward towards their objects.